Ktesibilos
Ktesibilos

Dünyanın en eski klavyeli enstrümanı olan org, milattan üç yüz yıl önce İskenderiyeli bir Antik Yunanlı olan Ktesibilos’un icadı olarak tarihte yer alır. Antik Yunan mühendislik ekolünün ilk önemli temsilcilerinden biri olan Ktesibilos su dolu bir tankın basıcının sağladığı havanın üflendiği borular ile çalışan Hydraulis adlı enstrümanın yaratıcısı. Söz konusu alet muhtemelen bir müzik enstrümanı olması düşünülerek icat edilmedi. Ancak Antik Yunanlıların müziğin hem sanat hem de bilim olduğunu düşündüklerini varsayarsak bu cihazın çok amaçlı olarak icat edildiği düşünülebilir.

Bir berber çırağı olan Ktesibilos, içerisinde kâşif ruhu ile fizik ve mühendisliğe merak saldı. Bunun sonucu olarak da dünya tarihinde bilinen ilk klavyeli çalgı aletini keşfetmiş oldu. Bu, iki ya da üç borulu basit bir aletti. Hydraulis, Roman imparatorluğunun en revaçta müzik enstrümanlarından da biriydi. Zamanla söz konusu cihaz geliştirilerek daha kalabalık tuşlu ve bol borulu aquincum adlı enstrümana dönüştü ve bu da su basıncıyla çalışan bir org idi.

Zamanla su basınçlı org yapımı Bizans’a kaydı ve Ortaçağın org yapım merkezi oldu. Su sisteminin oldukça meşakkatli olması sonucu yeni alternatifler üzerine çalışılmaya başlandı ve ilk sudan arınmış, havayla çalışan org 4. yüzyılda Konstantinopolis’te yapıldı. Konstantinopolis havalı org yapıp merkezi olarak yıldızını sekizinci yüzyıla kadar korudu. Daha sonra bu miras Avrupa’ya taşındı. Özellikle Batı Avrupa’da org bir anda dinsel müzik içerisinde önemli bir konuma taşındı. Rönesans ve Barok dönemleri süresince cihaz pek çok teknik gelişim yaşadı. Bu gelişimi sayesinde daha yaratıcı müzisyenlerin sınırları zorlamak istedikleri başlıca müzik enstrümanı oldu.

On üçüncü yüzyıldan taşınabilir hale getirilen bu enstrüman birleşik siboplar kullanılarak teknik aşıdan bir sonraki aşamaya taşındı. On altın yüzyılda ise dinsel müziğin yanı sıra popüler müzik için de kullanılmaya başlandı. Özellikle Claudio Merulo, Kan Sweenlick ve Girolamo Frescobaldi sayesinde org müziği arşivi oluşturuldu. El klavyelerinin tuş sayısı 35’ten 61’e, pedalları ise 12’den 32’ye çıkartılarak cihazın bugünkü son haline yaklaşıldı. Günümüze gelenen kadar orga diğer enstrümanların sesini veren ilave kısımlar eklendi.

1929 yılında org yapımcısı Edouard Eloi Coupleux ve radyo mühendisi Armand Givelet bir araya gelerek popüler elektronik orgu üretti. Kilisede, sinemada ve konser salonlarında çalınmak üzere üretilen enstrümana “Dalga Orgu” anlamına gelen “Orgue des Ondes” adı verildi. Böylece org fiilen modern çağdaş müziğe adım atmış oldu. O günden bugüne de özellikle caz, rock ve gospel müziğinde dominant olarak varlığını sürdürüyor.

Not: Org konu olunca Silbermann Org’larından bahsetmemek olmaz. Andreas Silbermann (1678-1734) ve kardeşi Gottfried (1683-1753) Almanya’nın org altın çağının başyıldızlarıydı. Andreas sadece Alsace bölgesinde 34 org yaptı; Gottfrield ise saksonya bölgesinde 46 tane inşa etti. Bu orgların çoğu hala kullanılır durumda ve yapıları gereği pek çok müzik severi büyüleyecek nitelikte.

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