Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck

Hollanda müziği, çevresindeki komşu ülkelerden oldukça etkilenmiştir. 19. yüzyılda Alman müzik geleneğinin etkisindeyken, 20. Yüzyıl’da Fransa’nın etkisi oldukça güçlü bir şekilde hissedilmiştir. Özellikle İkinci Dünya Savaşı öncesinde Fransız müziği politik bir görüşü de temsil eder; bu müzik yükselen Nazizm’e karşıt görüşü temsil eder. Savaş sırasında ise müzikal etkinlikler bestekârların ya Yahudi olması ya da Nazi görüşlerini savunmadıkları için var olan kurallara uymak istememeleri nedeniyle oldukça azalmıştır.

Amsterdam’a bakıldığında ise bu şehrin 17. yüzyılda notasyon konusunda öncü olduğu, 18. ve 19. yüzyıllarda ise burjuvanın yükselişiyle beraber oda müziğinin varlığı hissedilmektedir. Amsterdam ayrıca 18. yüzyılda kurulmuş ve uluslararası bir üne kavuşmuş Amsterdam Barok Orkestrası’na da ev sahipliği yapmıştır. Daha eskilere gidildiğinde, Hollanda müzik kültüründe karşımıza iki önemli isim çıkmaktadır: Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562- 1621) ve Jacob van Eyck (1590- 1657).

Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, org müziğinin oluşmasındaki en önemli isimlerden biridir. Geç Rönesans ve erken Barok stillerinin en önemli temsilcileri arasındadır. Eski Kilise’de 1580’den itibaren başorgçuluk görevini üstlenmiştir. Genelde Fransız ve Hollanda akımlarına bağlı kalarak dini vokal müzikler bestelemiş olsa dahi pek çok org bestesine de imza atmıştır. Bu besteler Venedik org geleneğini de andıran koral varyasyonlar, tokattalar ve dinsel olmayan sesler de barındırmaktadır.

Sweelinck’in fantazyaları, tek bir temada birleşimi, eksilmeyi ve ritm değişikliğini bir araya getiren ilk org temalarından biridir. Bestelerini başka insanlarla da paylaşarak Alman Org Geleneği’ni derinden etkilemiştir. Sweelinck’in bir diğer özelliği ise emprovizasyon konusundaki yeteneğidir. Bu yeteneği nedeniyle kendisine “Amsterdam’ın Orfeus”u denilmiştir.

Jacob van Eyck, Hollanda Altın Çağı’nın en önemli flütçülerinden ve bestecilerinden biridir. Carillonist olarak da tanınmaktadır. Der Fluyten Lust-Hof’taki virtüöze solo müziği dünyanın birçok yanındaki sanatçılar için hala önemli bir yere sahiptir. Jacob van Eyck, soylu bir ailenin çocuğuydu. Kör olarak doğmuş olduğundan ötürü annesi ile beraber yaşadı. Yaşamının ilerleyen zamanlarında Utrecht’e gitti ve Dom Kulesi’ndeki carillonlardan sorumlu oldu. Van Eyck’in çalışmalarının en önemli özelliklerinden biri çanın şeklinin tınıya olan etkisini fark etmesiyle birlikte belirli bir çanın beş bölgesindeki sesleri ayrıştırabilmesidir. Müziği, 1638 yılında o zamanlar Utrecht’te yaşayan René Descartes’in de ilgisini çekmiştir. 1655 yılında Yeni Kilise’de görev yapmış, 1657 yılında vefat etmiştir. Van Eyck’in mezar taşının üzerinde Sanderus’un bestelediği dört satırlık bir nazım bulunmaktadır.

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